Medicalxpress

Medical Xpress internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
  1. DEAR MAYO CLINIC: A friend recently went through a bout of shingles. I really don't know much about this condition, but I know it was painful. How do you get it? Is there a treatment or vaccine for it?
  2. Children who are exposed to the Zika virus while in the womb, but who are not subsequently diagnosed with Zika-related birth defects and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), may still display differences in some aspects of cognitive development, mood and mobility compared to unexposed children, reports a study published in Pediatric Research. These findings suggest that Zika-exposed children may need some additional support and monitoring as they get older.
  3. More than 37 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, and more than 96 million adults in the U.S.—over one-third—have prediabetes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  4. A new, single-dose, oral treatment for sleeping sickness is as effective as current treatments and could be a key factor in eliminating disease transmission by 2030, suggests a new study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
  5. COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a leading cause of disability and death in the U.S., according to the American Lung Association. More than 12.5 million people have been diagnosed with COPD, but millions more may have the disease without knowing it.
  6. DEAR MAYO CLINIC: My husband has had terrible neck pain for a few years. It has gotten to the point where he cannot turn his head to either side enough to drive safely. We heard that replacing a disk in his neck might be the best option. Are there other things we should try first? And is this type of surgery safe?
  7. Bowel ischemia is a potentially fatal medical condition caused by a decrease or obstruction of blood flow to the intestine. It is linked to many serious gastrointestinal disorders that can have long-term and deadly effects. Left untreated, it quickly progresses to irreversible intestinal necrosis that in turn leads to fatal metabolic disorders and end-organ dysfunction. As a result, the timely surgical treatment of this condition is critical.
  8. Latest research findings show that vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are mostly directed against one of the two main domains of the viral entry machinery.
  9. When our immune system runs, it sets in motion antibodies, white blood cells and phagocytes. But all the details of how this works are not yet understood—specifically, in the lymph nodes, which are important elements of the immune system. It is unclear, for example, how the blood supply to and within the nodes works specifically.
  10. Heart disease remains a leading cause of death around the world. And diabetes is one of the risk factors for heart disease. Diabetes is a growing global health concern, with more than 422 million people living with this metabolic disorder—the majority of those with Type 2 diabetes.
  11. The human brain consumes an immense amount of energy and needs an uninterrupted supply of oxygen to maintain its activity. Therefore, the brain is equipped with a network of delicate blood vessels that transport oxygen molecules to brain cells. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2), which indicates how much energy the brain is consuming at a given time, is a key index of brain activity.
  12. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States, claiming more than 800,000 lives annually. A healthy diet is one key lifestyle strategy to reduce CVD risk factors, including high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and ultimately prevent atherosclerotic heart disease—or the hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by fatty build up that can lead to heart attack and stroke. However, there is scarce data to guide patients' decisions as to which heart-healthy diet to adopt.
  13. Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and a team of collaborators have won the 2022 Gordon Bell Special Prize for High Performance Computing-Based COVID-19 Research for their new method of quickly identifying how a virus evolves. Their work in training large language models (LLMs) to discover variants of SARS-CoV-2 has implications to biology beyond COVID-19.
  14. After healing, minor facial scars have little or no effect on ratings of attractiveness, while some scars are even linked to more favorable ratings, suggests a survey study in the December issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
  15. To ensure fair and impartial distribution of the $1.07 billion that was awarded to Pennsylvania as part of 2021's massive settlement with opioid manufacturers and distributors, a team of interdisciplinary researchers from Penn State worked with counties across the commonwealth to develop the formula by which funds are being distributed. In a new publication in The Milbank Quarterly, the researchers described the process they followed to select data for decision-making, develop a formula that addressed the needs of all counties, and promote buy-in among counties. The researchers also described factors that other groups should consider when developing similar formulas and discussed lessons learned.
  16. A family history of cancer and genetic variants that might be inherited appear to be important risk factors for Black men diagnosed with early-onset prostate cancer, a study involving Duke Health researchers has found.
  17. Gross anatomy reveals three-dimensional shapes of pathology at a large scale. Histology, in contrast, reveals the microscopic anatomy of biological structures. But that magnification comes at a cost—histology shows only two-dimensional shapes because it studies small, flat slices of stained tissue.
  18. Excessive television viewing as a child can lead to a higher risk of tobacco use and gambling disorders in adulthood, a new University of Otago study shows.
  19. Peter Gulick, a professor in the Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine, has been studying HIV/AIDS since the epidemic began in the early 1980s.
  20. The mean length of the preclinical detectable phase (PCDP) of open-angle glaucoma is estimated to be over 10 years, according to a study published online Nov. 23 in JAMA Ophthalmology.